Equal Access to In-State Programs
In 1938, the Supreme Court constricted the ability of states to prevent integration when in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, Registrar of the University of Missouri they ruled that states could not simply pay African American students to study out of state in a program that was available for white students in state. For example, if a medical or law school was available for white students, a state could not get around denying admission to black students by providing them with financial aid for an out-of-state institution. Instead, they had to allow qualified black students into white programs, establish the same programs at a black university, or get rid of the programs entirely. In order to prevent integration, North Carolina chose the second option and, during the 1940’s, began developing new programs at black colleges. For example, rather than allowing African-American students to study at NC State’s School of Engineering, a similar program was developed at NC A&T.